The x/oracle module equips the Settlus blockchain with real-time, accurate block information and NFT ownerships from external blockchains. This enables the x/settlement module to utilize NFTs from external chains without using a bridge. The module has a generic structure designed to support various kinds of information from outside blockchains in the future.

Since this information is external to the Settlus blockchain, it relies on validators to periodically submit votes on the most recent block data. The protocol tallies these votes at the end of each VotePeriod to update the on-chain block data based on the weighted majority.


Voting Procedure

Settlus provides RoundInfo, which includes details about the voting period, voting topics, criteria, and more. Currently, there are two types of topics: Block and Ownership.

During each VotePeriod, validators are required to submit two types of messages: Prevote and Vote. Validators must initially pre-commit to Data for every topic with a Prevote message. Before the current VotePeriod ends, they must reveal their pre-committed Data alongside proof of the pre-commitment with a Vote message.

This process ensures that validators commit to their choices before seeing other votes, thereby reducing centralization and free-rider risks.

Prevote and Vote

  • A MsgPrevote contains the SHA-256 hash of the combined Data for each topic.

  • MsgPrevote can only be submitted before PrevoteEnd.

The Prevote contains the SHA-256 hash of the block data in the following string format:

sha256(<salt><data for topic1><data for topic2>...)
  • A MsgVote includes the salt used to generate the hash for the Prevote submitted in the prevote stage.

  • MsgVote can only be submitted between PrevoteEnd and VoteEnd.

The Vote contains an array of data for each topic:

        "Topic": "Block",
        "Data": ["data1", "data2", "data3", ...]
        "Topic": "Ownership",
        "Data": ["data1", "data2", "data3", ...]

Vote Tally

At each round, the protocol tallies the votes to calculate the weighted majority at the EndBlock stage.

The submitted salt of each vote is used to verify consistency with the Prevote submitted by the validator during the prevote stage. If the validator has not submitted a Prevote, or if the SHA-256 hash resulting from the salt does not match the hash from the Prevote, the vote is dropped.

For each topic, the most voted Data that has more than the VoteThreshold total voting power is accepted for the following voting period.

Ballot Rewards

After tallying, the tally() function identifies the winning ballots.

Block Reorganization Handling

Block reorganization, or reorg, occurs when an existing block at a specific height is replaced. This can happen when an external chain forks.

In the event of a reorg, the list of information is updated to reflect the new longest chain following standard voting procedures.



The Block topic is for determining the current block height of an external chain corresponding to the Settlus block. The list of external chains is from the SupportedChains of the Settlement Module. Feeders should submit the number and hash of the block which has the smallest timestamp exceeding the Timestamp given in RoundInfo. The data format of the Block topic is:


Note that the block data itself doesn't currently have any role in the Settlus chain, but it represents the point-of-view criteria of NFT ownership.


The Ownership topic is for determining the current owner of NFTs from external chains. The list of NFTs that need to be verified comes from UTXRs of the Settlement Module. Feeders should submit the NFT owner at the block that will be submitted with the Block topic in the same round (the block having the smallest timestamp exceeding the timestamp given in RoundInfo). The data format of the Ownership topic is:



Rewards for oracles are pooled from the fees collected from the x/settlement module.


The following events are considered a "miss":

  • The validator fails to submit a vote for the current Data for each topic in every round.

  • The validator fails to vote within the weighted majority for any topic.

During every SlashWindow, participating validators must maintain a valid vote rate of at least MinValidPercentPerSlashWindow (currently set to 50%). If a validator fails to maintain a valid vote rate, the validator is slashed by SlashFraction (currently set to 1%). The slashed validator is automatically temporarily "jailed" by the protocol (to protect the funds of delegators), and the operator is expected to fix the discrepancy promptly to resume validator participation.

Abstaining from Voting

A validator may abstain from voting by submitting empty data in MsgVote. Doing so will absolve them of any penalties for missing VotePeriods, but also disqualify them from receiving Oracle rewards for faithful reporting.

End Block

Tally Block Data Votes

At the end of every block, the x/oracle module checks whether it's the last block of the VotePeriod. If it is, it runs the Voting Procedure:

  1. Received votes are organized into ballots. Abstained votes, as well as votes by inactive or jailed validators are ignored.

  2. Run VoteProcessor for each Topic. A VoteProcessor

    • Tally up votes and find the weighted majority Data and winners with TallyVotes().

    • Iterate through winners of the ballot and add their weight to their running total.

    • Store the specific actions for each topic. For example, store the updated BlockData on the blockchain for the Block topic

  3. Count up the validators who missed the Oracle vote and increase the appropriate miss counters.

  4. If at the end of a SlashWindow, penalize validators who have missed more than the penalty threshold (submitted fewer valid votes than MinValidPercentPerSlashWindow)

  5. Distribute rewards to ballot winners with k.RewardBallotWinners()

  6. Clear all prevotes (except ones for the next VotePeriod) and votes from the store



Hash is a hex string generated the SHA256 hash (hex string) of a string with the following format:

Note that in the subsequent MsgVote, the salt will have to be revealed. The salt used must be regenerated for each prevote submission.

type MsgPrevote struct {
    Feeder    string
    Validator string
    Hash string


The MsgVote contains the actual exchange rates vote. The Salt parameter must match the salt used to create the prevote, otherwise the voter cannot be rewarded. The BlockData field contains the block number and block hash of the block for each chain ID in the whitelist.

type MsgVote struct {
    Feeder    string
    Validator string
    BlockData *BlockData
    Salt      string


Validators may elect to delegate voting rights to another key to prevent the block signing key from being kept online. To do so, they must submit a MsgFeederDelegationConsent, delegating their oracle voting rights to a Delegate that sign MsgPrevote and MsgVote on behalf of the validator.

The Validator field contains the operator address of the validator (prefixed settlusvaloper1). The FeederAddress field is the account address (prefixed settlus1-) of the delegate account that will be submitting votes and prevotes on behalf of the Validator.

type MsgDelegateFeedConsent struct {
	Validator string
	FeederAddress string


The oracle module contains the following parameters:


















  • votePeriod must be larger than 0.

  • voteThreshold must be larger than 0.5.

  • slashFraction must be larger than 0 and less than 0.1.

  • slashWindow must be larger than 0 and divisible by the votePeriod.

  • maxMissCountPerSlashWindow must be less than the slashWindow.

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