x/settlement

The x/settlement module revolutionizes the management of financial transactions and settlements. The Settlement Flow page might be helpful for understanding the concept of the settlement system briefly.

Concept

Tenant

In the Settlus blockchain, the concept of a "Tenant" represents an individual platform or service that utilizes the x/settlement module. Each tenant operates independently within the Settlus ecosystem, maintaining their distinct transaction records, revenue streams, and user interactions. The tenant is identified by a unique tenant_id, which serves as a cornerstone for tracking and managing their specific transactions and settlements.

A crucial aspect of each tenant's structure is the designation of Tenant Admins. These admins are authorized individuals or entities who have the capability to execute administrative actions specific to their tenant. This includes managing settlement treasury, recording revenues, cancelling UTXRs, and overseeing settlements. The list of Tenant Admins is configured and maintained in the admins parameter, ensuring secure and authorized access to administrative functions.

For more details see the Tenant page.

Unspent Transaction Record (UTXR)

The Unspent Transaction Record (UTXR) is a fundamental element of the Settlus blockchain, created whenever a payment is made from a tenant to a recipient. These records are crucial in tracking the flow of funds and ensuring the accuracy of settlements. Each UTXR contains details such as the NFT address, recipient's address, the amount of the transaction in the unspent_records state, these records are the backbone of the settlement process.

Recipients

The Recipients field contains a list of recipient addresses and their corresponding weights, representing the owners of an NFT. When a record is settled, the amount is split by weight and sent to the recipients.

  • If the NFT is stored in Settlus, we directly determine the recipients of the NFT during the execution of a record transaction.

  • If the NFT is stored on an external chain, we postpone determining the owners. The oracle module will later fill in these details through voting from feeders.

Payout Period

The "Payout Period" in the Settlus blockchain is a critical concept pertaining to the lifecycle of an Unspent Transaction Record (UTXR). This period is defined as a specific number of blockchain blocks and represents the timeframe during which a UTXR is eligible for a cancel. The length of the payout period is pre-established and is integral in dictating the conditions under which a transaction can be reversed.

During the payout period, if the involved parties decide that a cancel is necessary, the UTXR can be canceled by simply removing the UTXR from the unspent_records state. This mechanism provides a safety net for both tenants and recipients, allowing for transaction disputes or errors to be rectified within a reasonable time frame.

Once the payout period has elapsed, the UTXR is no longer eligible for a cancel. At this juncture, the transaction is considered final and the funds are ready to be disbursed. The recipient will then receive the payment in USDC, the designated settlement currency. This process ensures a clear and structured settlement timeline, providing certainty and transparency to both tenants and recipients in the transaction process.

Settlement

Once the payout period of a UTXR has concluded, the UTXR is eligible for settlement. This process is the final step in the lifecycle of a transaction and is essential for the actual transfer of funds from tenants to recipients.

At each BeginBlock, the x/settlement module iterates through the unspent_records state and checks if the UTXR's payout period has passed. The UTXRs that have passed the payout period are considered eligible for settlement. If the tenant has enough funds in the treasury to settle the UTXR, the UTXR is removed from the unspent_records state and the amount is transferred from the tenant's treasury to the recipient's wallet. If the tenant does not have enough funds in the treasury to settle the UTXR, the settlement will be deferred until the tenant has enough funds. The UTXR will remain in the unspent_records state until the tenant has enough funds to settle the UTXR.

Fixed Fee

It is common for the price of a coin to fluctuate significantly due to external factors, regardless of the supply and demand related to its actual use. Such fluctuations are more frequent before the blockchain stabilizes. If such events occur, the cost required to record a transaction could fluctuate significantly, which could be unfavorable for the creators and platform services using Settlus. To avoid this, transactions handled by the Settlement Module are paid with a fixed gas amount and gas price, such as 0.001 USDC.

End Block

At each EndBlock, the x/settlement module iterates through the unspent_records state and checks if the UTXR's payout period has passed.

Messages

MsgCreateTenant

The MsgCreateTenant message creates new Tenant.

type MsgCreateTenant struct {
	Sender       string
	Denom        string
	PayoutPeriod uint64
}

All messages handled in Settlement Module have fixed gas cost(10000). To reduce inactive tenants, MsgCreateTenant have additional gas cost(1000000000000)

MsgRecord

The MsgRecord message allows tenant admins to record revenue. x/settlement module will query the owner of the NFT with x/nftownership module and record the revenue to the owner's wallet.

type MsgRecord struct {
    Sender string
    TenantId string
    RequestId string
    Amount sdk.Coin
    ChainId string
    ContractAddress string
    TokenIdHex string
    Metadata string
}

ContractAddress and TokenIdHex should be a form of HexAddress.

Metadata is an optional field that can be used to send additional information about the UTXR. Metadata is not stored in the unspent_records state, but it is emitted in the EventUTXRCreated event. An indexer can parse the emitted metadata and store it in a separate database.

MsgCancel

The MsgCancel message allows tenant admins to cancel a UTXR.

type MsgCancel struct {
    Sender string
    TenantId string
    RequestId string
}

MsgDepositToTreasury

The MsgDepositToTreasury message allows tenant admins deposit funds to the treasury. Anyone can deposit funds to the treasury.

type MsgDepositToTreasury struct {
    Sender string
    Id string
    TenantId uint64
    Amount sdk.Coin
}

Parameters

The x/settlement module contains the following parameters:

KeyTypeExample

gas_prices

[]DecCoin

[{denom: setl, amount: 0.1}]

oracle_fee_percentage

dec

"0.500000000000000000"

supported_chains

[]Chain

[{chain_id:1, chain_name: ethereum, chain_url: https://ethereum.org}]

Client

CLI

A user can query and interact with the x/settlement module using the CLI.

Query

The query commands allow users to query x/settlement module's state.

settlusd query settlement --help

UTXRs

The utxrs command allows users to query the UTXRs of a tenant.

settlusd query settlement utxrs [tenant-id] [flags]

Example:

settlusd query settlement utxrs 1

Example Output:

{
  "id": "1",
  "tenant_id": "1",
  "created_at": "550",
  "recipients": [
    {
        "addr": "cosmos1xv9tklw7d82sezh9haa573wufgy59vmwe6xxe5", 
        "weight": 1
    }
  ]
  "amount": [
    {
        "denom": "uusdc",
        "amount": "1000000"
    }
  ],
}

Transactions

The tx commands allow users to interact with the x/settlement module.

settlusd tx settlement --help

Record

The command record allows tenant admins to record a UTXR.

Usage:

settlusd tx settlement record [tenant-id] [request-id] [amount] [chain-id] [contract-address] [token-id-hex] [metadata] [flags] 

Example:

settlusd tx settlement record \
    1 # tenant id \
    request-1 # request id \
    1000000usdc # amount
    1 # chain id \
    0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000001 # contract address \
    0x1 # token id \
    "metadata" # metadata

Cancel

The command cancel allows tenant admins to cancel a UTXR.

Usage:

settlusd tx settlement cancel [tenant-id] [request-id] [flags]

Example:

settlusd tx settlement cancel \
    1 # tenant id \
    request-1 # request id

Deposit to Treasury

The command deposit-to-treasury allows tenant admins to deposit funds to the treasury.

Usage:

settlusd tx settlement deposit-to-treasury [tenant-id] [amount] [flags]

Example:

settlusd tx settlement deposit-to-treasury \
    1 # tenant id \
    1000000usdc # amount

gRPC

A user can query and interact with the x/settlement module using gRPC.

REST

A user can query and interact with the x/settlement module using REST.

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